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Digital citizenship modules

These self-paced modules can be used for personal or staff professional development. Each module contains different activities that include questions for reflection. These can be worked through individually or with your colleagues. The modules are designed to be flexible. Select the content that is relevant to you and your school from each of them.

Module 1: Understanding digital citizenship 

By the end of this module, you will understand what digital citizenship is and:

  • how it relates to your teaching and learning programme
  • how to address it positively with your learners.
greytown083
What is digital citizenship?

Digital citizenship is a key component of future-focused learning. Understanding digital citizenship enables schools to:

  • integrate digital technologies to enhance teaching and learning
  • develop students' digital fluency
  • balance protective and promotional activity online so that students can:
    • can effectively manage their online actions and interactions safely, responsibly, and ethically
    • have the knowledge and capacity to achieve and participate in an online environment.

Netsafe, 2016

Digital citizenship is a powerful enabler of inclusion in social, cultural, and civil society

Becoming a digital citizen is "part of who we all are" in school. It should be planned for at a whole-school level. It can be addressed through multiple contexts, including structured activities and taking advantage of meaningful opportunities to talk and learn about being online.

Netsafe, 2016

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From literacy to fluency to citizenship: Digital Citizenship in Education

NetSafe's white paper (November, 2016) defines a digital citizen as someone who can fluently combine digital skills, knowledge, and attitudes in order to participate in society as an active, connected, lifelong learner.

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Consider
  • How safe, legal, and ethical is the use of information within your school and community?
  • What systems do you have in place to ensure your school social media and other communication channels respect privacy and copyright?
  • What school-wide policy does your school have to support and develop digital citizenship? 
  • How do your school leaders and teachers model and facilitate safe and responsible digital use?
  • How do teachers integrate digital citizenship into learning areas and activities?
  • How do students understand what being a responsible digital citizen means? How do they demonstrate this?

Teachers actively model and promote the skills and values that students need to develop to become responsible digital citizens.

ERO, Wellbeing, 2016

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NetSafe's definition of a digital citizen and Mike Ribble's Nine Elements of Digital Citizenship.

Netsafe

Digital citizenship is an example of the vision, values, and competencies of our curricula in action in digital spaces. It has the potential to be a significant enabler of The New Zealand Curriculum, not just an add on.

A digital citizen combines:

1. the confident, fluent use and combination of:

  • skills and strategies to access technology to communicate, connect, collaborate and create
  • attitudes, underpinned by values that support personal integrity and positive connection with others
  • understanding and knowledge of the digital environments and contexts in which they are working, and how they integrate on/offline spaces

2. the ability to draw on this digital fluency to participate in life-enhancing opportunities (social, economic, cultural, civil) and achieve their goals in ways that make an important difference.

Digital citizenship is a high-level outcome of achieving digital fluency and applying skills through multiple contexts. This definition of digital citizenship aligns strongly with the vision and principles of The New Zealand Curriculum  and Te Marautanga o Aotearoa.

NetSafe's explanation of digital citizenship diagram

Diagram 1: A definition of digital citizenship – NetSafe (2016)

Netsafe

Nine Elements of Digital Citizenship

  1. Digital access: Advocating for equal digital rights and access is where digital citizenship starts.
  2. Digital etiquette: Rules and policies aren’t enough – we need to teach everyone about appropriate conduct online.
  3. Digital law: It’s critical that users understand it’s a crime to steal or damage another’s digital work, identity, or property.
  4. Digital communication: With so many communication options available, users need to learn how to make appropriate decisions.
  5. Digital literacy: We need to teach students how to learn in a digital society.
  6. Digital commerce: As users make more purchases online, they must understand how to be effective consumers in a digital economy.
  7. Digital rights and responsibilities: We must inform people of their basic digital rights to privacy, freedom of speech, etc.
  8. Digital safety and security: Digital citizens need to know how to protect their information from outside forces that might cause harm.
  9. Digital health and wellness: From physical issues, such as repetitive stress syndrome, to psychological issues, such as internet addiction, users should understand the health risks of technology.

Mike Ribble (2014)

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Things you need to know about being a good digital citizen by Sherry Luna .

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As an educator, how do you model and teach effective digital citizenship? 

Review your own online footprint. 

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Consider
  • How does digital citizenship include: 
    • digital fluency
    • participation
    • safety, rights, and responsibilities
    • positive attitudes and values?
  • How you will develop an effective and positive understanding of digital citizenship with students and whānau (family)?
  • How will this be reflected in your teaching and learning programme?
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458 minutes – that's how much time the average teen spends using media each day. This video (by NCTA ) explores how students can practice good digital citizenship skills all 458 minutes they’re online. Challenge your students to be smart and effective participants in the digital world!

Students learn that the information that they put online leaves a digital footprint or "trail." This trail can be big or small, helpful or hurtful, depending on how they manage it. This video (by Common Sense Media ) works in collaboration with the Digital Citizenship Curriculum, Grade K-2, unit 2, Follow the Digital Trail .

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Consider and record

Invite students to watch the videos above, then consider and record their answers to the following questions:

  • How much time do you spend on a device and online during the course of a regular day?
  • What do you read, watch, play, create, share?
  • Who do you interact with online? How?
  • What are the benefits of being able to interact and socialise in a digital world? 
  • What are some of the challenges and risks of being able to interact and socialise in a digital world? 
  • How are your digital interactions online different or the same to your face-to-face interactions?
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Create – Share

1. Ask students to discuss their findings from the "consider and record" activity above then share their answers to the questions below in creative ways.

  • What do the findings from our use of digital technologies show us?
  • What are the implications of these findings for us as digital citizens?
  • What are some scenarios where we have had to, or might have to, practice effective digital citizenship?

2. Create an infographic  to:

  • describe what an effective digital citizen is.
  • identify how can you be a responsible digital citizen?
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Digital citizenship games and activities:

"Digital fluency is a set of competencies and dispositions. Digital citizenship is a high-level outcome of achieving digital fluency, applied through multiple contexts."

Netsafe (2016 p. 11)

A digitally fluent person can decide when to use specific digital technologies to achieve their desired outcome. They can articulate why the tools they are using will provide their desired outcome.

More information »
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New media educator, Marco Torres discusses current trends in education and the challenges digital learning brings to contemporary teaching and learning.

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Consider

  • What skills do your students need to be digitally fluent, digital citizens?
  • How effectively are you preparing your students to be successful in developing digital fluencies?
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1. Developing digital fluency  and identify useful examples to:

  • support students to critically analyse information
  • flip learning
  • encourage collaboration through digital tools
  • scaffold online tasks
  • encourage students to share their learning
  • foster digital citizenship among your students.

2. Learning activities to develop digital fluency

Explore some practical classroom approaches and activities for supporting the development of digital fluency.

Module 2: Exploring cybersafety

By the end of this module, you will be able to use your understanding of cybersafety is to:

  • support your students and parents with knowing how to use technology appropriately
  • prepare students for meaningful and safe participation in an online environment.

Cybersafety (te haumaru ā-ipurangi) is an outcome of digital citizenship

The concept of creating a cybersafe environment has moved from protecting students to giving them the skills, knowledge, and confidence to maximise the opportunities the effective use of technology can bring. The emphasis is on promoting safe and responsible behaviours. Students need to build skills and knowledge to effectively manage online challenges themselves.

Cybersafety is the management of risk and harm related to behaviour-related digital challenges. Such challenges might include cyberbullying, smear campaigns, accessing inappropriate content, creating spoof websites/profiles or ‘sexting’. Cybersafe spaces are created through a combination of promotion and protection. Schools and kura need to provide safe, meaningful learning environments for students, including online (as described in NAG5). We know that a combination of protective (e.g. filtering) and promotional (e.g. deliberate teaching) measures is the most effective approach to reduce risk and harm.

Netsafe

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Andrew Churches summarises the six tenets of citizenship:

  • respect yourself
  • protect yourself
  • respect others
  • protect others
  • respect intellectual property
  • protect intellectual property.
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Consider
  • How can you engage your community in discussions about appropriate behaviour, aligned to your school values and vision? 
  • What do your students need to know to be safe, discerning users of technology?
  • What are the norms for using digital technologies in your school or classroom?
  • How can you support students to be safe, discerning users of technology?
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Identify opportunities within your curriculum and inquiry programmes to learn about the skills/competencies and knowledge needed to behave like a digital citizen. Refer to the ideas presented in the Developing digital fluency page to help guide you. 

Understanding the cybersafety issues facing your school is vital for addressing the key requirements for developing your student, teacher, and parent agreements and policies.

Comprehensive use agreements play a vital role in developing and maintaining an effective school cybersafety programme. By providing information on the cybersafety initiatives taken by the school, as well as everyone’s shared expectations, user agreements emphasise the role played by the whole school community in the maintenance of a cybersafe school environment.

NetSafe

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Staff and students from Apiti School explain some of the practical strategies they have put in place to ensure they are safe and responsible digital citizens.

Ewan McIntosh explains the importance of ensuring teacher, student, and parent understanding of internet safety prior to using social media and other technologies in your teaching programmes. He suggests developing a student agreement, parent, and teacher agreement on the rights and responsibilities of each individual.

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Consider
  • What issues around cybersafety have you faced with students or parents?
  • What are your concerns?
  • Where are your policies and agreements kept, do they need updating or creating?
  • How do you think having an agreement will support developing students as digital citizens?
  • What are the important components of any digital citizenship policies and agreements in your school?
  • How you will you collaborate with students and family (whānau) to create one?
  • What are your next steps to creating a cybersafe environment?
 
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The NetSafe Kit for schools

The NetSafe Kit helps schools to address student cybersafety and support digital citizenship. Following expert consultation, the fourth version of the NetSafe Kit details seven steps required to produce a cybersafe learning environment with digital citizenship at its core.

There are three policy and use document templates available as a part of this kit:

Resources for school leaders and educators

This space on the Netsafe website contains resources to help teachers with their own professional learning to support digital citizenship and cybersafety. Use them to:

    • understand your stewardship obligations
    • talk about what is important and appropriate in your school community
    • put in place incident response processes and secure systems
    • discover ways to develop everyone’s capabilities.
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Take a proactive, strategic approach to digital citizenship and cybersafety in your school.

Work through the NetSafe Kit's seven steps  to help produce a cybersafe learning school.

Start with Step 1: Identify your starting point – Issues and capability

  • Conduct a survey to assess the internet safety issues facing your students, and their confidence in successfully managing them.
  • Conduct a survey to gauge school staff confidence at supporting students to manage key internet safety issues.
  • Conduct a survey to gauge family (whānau) understanding of digital citizenship issues and confidence to support young people in the challenges they experience online.

The kit contains an assessment tool which will provide you with a series of surveys around each of these topics.

An effective approach to teaching cybersafety is to provide students with experience in digital citizenship-related learning experiences within meaningful contexts. They should be able to describe the underlying principles of effective digital citizenship, including: skills, capabilities, and values they are applying in different contexts. This can be done through a combination of:

To develop an understanding of the principles of effective digital citizenship, support students to:

  • actively lead their own learning
  • know how digital citizenship relates to their experiences
  • learn about new concepts through the use of scaffolded materials
  • apply new digital citizenship concepts in the context of authentic curriculum inquiry
  • reflect by themselves and/or with peers on their progress against clear criteria.

NetSafe’s Learn-Guide-Protect framework  asserts that the younger the student, the more important the protective measures so that young students can safely explore a wide range of online experiences. As students mature, there is a greater need for self-management. Offer regular opportunities and support for students active participation as digital citizens in a wide range of meaningful contexts. The most powerful interventions are led and championed by students themselves. Provide opportunities for the students to come together in a safe space to talk about their current life experiences and how they feel and what they know is happening for other students.

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The grid

Netsafe have a range of activities you can select ranging from Early childhood (ECE) to Year 13. 

Resources for primary and intermediate schools

Curated on the Netsafe website, these resources may be useful to help you explore issues with your learners.

Resources for secondary schools

Sextortion

Sextortion is blackmail. It’s when someone threatens to send a sexual image or video of you to other people if you don’t pay them or provide more sexual content. This website contains an explanatory video, discussion ideas, and downloadable posters for using with students.

Students and Cybersafety

Students' perspectives about online safety issues provide insight into the culture of a school.  

Examples of students' work: 

  • Sticks n Stones
    A secondary student-led project managed by Central Otago REAP focused on taking positive action online to reduce Cyberbullying.
     
  • Connected
    Created by a group of Year 10 Girls at St Andrew's College in Christchurch, who completed a Health Unit called "Connected" which looks at the digital world, social media, technology, and how we use it. 
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Use the ideas and resources provided in the links above to create learning opportunities that allow your students to:

  • Actively lead their own learning
  • Know how digital citizenship relates to their experiences
  • Learn about new concepts through the use of scaffolded materials
  • Apply new digital citizenship concepts in the context of authentic curriculum inquiry
  • Reflect by themselves and/or with peers on their progress against clear criteria.

For example: Plan an activity that could help students to:

  • define a problem
  • design and pitch possible ideas
  • develop possible approaches to reach a solution (e.g. an ambassador programme that could offer genuine leadership opportunities for all students). 

Module 3: Understanding copyright and applying Creative Commons

By the end of this module, you will understand what copyright and Creative Commons is, including;

  • legal principles and rules relating to the protection and use of creative work
  • the implications for schools, teachers, and learners.

The right to access, use, re–use, and share information raises issues of ownership and fair use.

A digital citizen understands the importance of:

  • seeking and acknowledging sources
  • sharing and protecting their own work.
Setting up a BYOD pilot at Wairakei School

Copyright describes a set of exclusive rights that are given to owners in relation to the creation of audio, image, or video works. In New Zealand, copyright is an automatic right that doesn’t need to be registered by the owner as long as the work is original. Copyright exists as soon as something is created, performed, or published. These rights are laid out in the Copyright Act 1994 .

Read more about copyright at Netsafe .

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Copyright in Schools

For principals and trustees  

Information on the Te Kete Ipurangi (TKI) website.

Copyright Council of New Zealand website

Copyright use in the Education Sector, a downloadable PDF.

Copyright Compliance Guidelines

NZ School Trustees Association (NZSTA) information.

Managing copyright in schools

A useful guide to help teachers to develop a copyright policy and ensure that all members of the school community understand and follow it.

Information sheet  (pdf)

The Copyright Council of New Zealand developed this information sheet, which outlines who can do what legally when it comes to using copyright material in the educational sector.  

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Consider 
  • What happens to the increasing amount of online material school staff and students create when they move on?
  • If a staff member or student creates online material at one school and then moves to another school, who owns the copyright to the work and can people take it with them?
  • How much should staff and students share online and what rights do they have?
  • What are some of the exceptions to copyright for education and teaching? 

Exceptions to copyright

There is an exception to copyright which permits the use of any type of work for educational purposes; for the sole purpose of illustration for instruction. 

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Exceptions for education and teaching

A UK website outlining copyright exceptions for education. 

At your school

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Review your school policy and procedures, and any related documentation on copyright.

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Consider
  • What licence does your school hold for copyright? What copying does this allow you to do? Is this reflected in your school policy?
  • How does your school policy incorporate the 2011 Copyright Amendment ?
  • Identify or create explanations of what "infringing" and "file sharing" are in your school policy.
  • How is your school protecting itself from staff/students downloading peer–to–peer (P2P) files?
  • How does your school policy and procedures develop responsible digital citizenship behaviours with regard to copyright?
  • What is a CLNZ Education Licence  and how could this apply to your school? 
  • Does your school need to develop a copyright policy? 
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Poster download  (pdf)

A one-page guide to display at your school.

Work with your school community to develop your own school policy on copyright. 

All educators are responsible for modelling good digital citizenship. That means being aware of copyright rules and law.

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Read the information on these websites to find out what you can copy 

For teachers and contractors  – Te Kete Ipurangi (TKI)

Copyright Council of New Zealand

Copyright use in the Education Sector, a downloadable PDF

Copyright Compliance Guidelines

NZ School Trustees Association (NZSTA) information

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Consider
  • How can teachers model good digital citizenship, especially in relation to copyright law?
  • Do you use and acknowledge the sources of the images and text in your own resources?

Understand "fair dealing"

Fair dealing, otherwise known as "fair use", allows people to use copyrighted material in particular ways where they would have otherwise had to seek the copyright holder's permission. 

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Understanding "fair use" in a digital world  by Common Sense Education
Students meet ELA Common Core State Standards by analysing video remixes to judge whether or not they fall under fair use.

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What is "fair dealing" with copyright material?

The University of Otago website explains the concept of fair dealing. 

Is fair use a licence to steal?

This information sheet outlines who can do what legally when it comes to using copyright material in the educational sector. The Permitted Use Table on page 4 of the information sheet summarises the permitted uses under the Copyright Act that are relevant to the education sector. 

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Consider
  • How do you determine what is fair dealing (fair use) from what is stealing content?
  • How can you help your students learn about fair dealing and how this impacts on what the content they use and make? 

While some rights are guaranteed automatically by copyright law, schools may wish to explore other options such as patenting ideas for students to protect their work if it is considered that the work may have some commercial value.

To start with, as soon as you create a piece of work it is copyright protected. This means you own the work and people must obtain permission from you to share or reproduce your work in any way, unless your work sits in the public domain with a Creative Commons licence.

The person who created the works is usually the owner of any copyright unless the work is created in the course of employment or someone commissions and agrees to pay for it, in which case the rights will have been reassigned.

New Zealand Intellectual Property Office

Nicole's Story: Copyrighting Creative Work  by Common Sense Education
A young writer talks about posting her original manuscripts online and protecting that work from theft or misuse.

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New Zealand Intellectual Property Office

A guide to using copyright to protect the material you create and share online. 

Copyright online: What you need to know about protecting your works and using the works of others

The Ohio State University website presents ideas to protect the work you create.  

Intellectual property

Information from the NZ National Library.

Intellectual property and student work

Developed for Technology Online from a study by Susan Corbett, Louise Starkey, and Ann Bondy, Victoria University of Wellington.

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Consider
  • What rights do teachers have as authors of material?
  • What rights do students have as authors of material?
  • Who owns content posted online?
  • What happens when a student leaves the school?
  • Why would you or your students protect work with copyright?
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  • Consider how you can apply ideas in practice. 
  • Share your findings with other teachers, students, and family (whānau) in your school community. 

Students have access a vast amount of content on the Internet. It can be tempting for them to download and use content regardless of the legality involved.

Provide students with knowledge, tools, and strategies for:

  • presenting their ideas and information in ways that are both ethical and legal
  • protecting the content they create.
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Look at the following resources, then consider the questions below with your students. 

  • Teaching Copyright
    A website with activities and resources to help teach about copyright
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Consider
  • What legal and ethical considerations are required when using other peoples' work?
  • What individual rights and responsibilities does a creator of content have?
  • What individual rights and responsibilities does a consumer of content have?
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Review these interactive games and resources and identify those that are suitable for your students to explore

Cyberbee

An interactive game for students

Taking the mystery out of copyright  

An online mystery game for students

Copyright – The invisible Shield  

Guidance notes for students

The adventure of the girl with the light blue hair

A web series produced as part of the AHRC-funded activities of CopyrightUser.org. It explores key principles and ideas underpinning copyright law, creativity, and the limits of lawful appropriation and reuse.

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  • Share the videos, games and resources above with your students.
  • Invite students to share their findings about copyright with your educational community, or a wider online audience.  
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Plagiarism.org

A useful website explaining plagarism.

Quoting, paraphrasing and summarising  

This handout is very useful at explaining what each entails and how you should use these within essays or research.

Notetaking and notemaking links  

This site has a number of useful links for students when researching including graphic organisers for note taking.

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Consider
  • What strategies might enable your students to research or create content without plagiarising other people's ideas?

Creative Commons

In New Zealand’s 1994 Copyright Act , employers hold first ownership of copyright works produced in the course of employment. Therefore, teachers who share resources may be infringing the school’s copyright. Teachers can legally share and collaborate, permitted and supported by the school's Creative Commons policy using an open Creative Commons licence.  

Open licences encourage legal sharing and mixing of others' content in ways that make the most of opportunities offered by the Internet.

Creative Commons aims to establish a fair middle way between the extremes of copyright control and the uncontrolled uses of intellectual property. Creative Commons provides a range of copyright licences, freely available to the public, which allow those creating intellectual property – including authors, artists, educators, and scientists – to mark their work with the freedoms and restrictions of their choice.

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Creative Commons explained
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Taupaki School

Find out how in 2013, Taupaki School’s Board of Trustees passed a Creative Commons policy, giving permission to Taupaki’s teachers to share and collaborate, legally.

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Creative Commons Policies for Schools

Read this piece for a brief introduction to the concept of Creative Commons policies for schools.

CC Policies for Schools

A brochure explaining the reasons for schools to adopt a Creative Commons policy.

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Consider
  • Should your school adopt a Creative Commons policy? If so why?
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Develop a Creative Commons policy, download a template

“Teachers are collaborating more, and they’re also involving their students in the development of those teaching and learning resources.”

Mark Osborne, Albany Senior High School.

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What is Creative Commons?
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Creative Commons Aotearoa New Zealand  

Information about Creative Commons licensing and resources to support schools. 

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Consider
  • What are the different types of Creative Commons licences?
  • What are the benefits of Creative Commons licensing?
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Creative Commons for kids  by Nancy Minicozzi

A short introduction for primary school students to Creative Commons licensing

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Wanna Work together

A video clip from Creative Commons that pays tribute to the people around the world using CC licences to build a better, more vibrant creative culture.

Sharing Creative Works

A video based on the comic written and illustrated by Alex Roberts, Rebecca Rojer, and Jon Phillips. 

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Consider

Ask your students to answer the following questions:

  • Why and how would you use Creative Commons content?
  • Where can you find and use Creative Commons content?
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Share the videos and resources above with your students. Invite students to create their own way to explain copyright and Creative Commons using Creative Commons resources, such as images.

For a selection of free to use images:

Module 4: Digital citizenship at home

This is module is designed for schools to use as a basis for running workshops with parents, whānau, and the school community.

By the end of this module, parents will understand what digital citizenship is and:

  • how it relates to their child
  • how to address it positively with their child.

The Internet presents you and your family with opportunities to be entertained, access information, create, publish, and learn. It is also a space that can put you, your data, and your child at risk if not used safely and responsibly. There are precautions and actions you can take to make being online safe, enjoyable, and productive for the whole family.

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For parents of younger children

Kids and tech: The new landscape – by Common Sense Media

For parents of tweens and teens

Teens and tech: The new landscape – by Common Sense Media

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Consider
  • What was the same for you growing up, and what has changed for the next generation?
  • What are some of the positive aspects of children using social media that were pointed out in the video?  
  • What were some of the negatives?
  • Can you recall a positive experience that you observed related to your child’s use of social media (e.g., learning a new skill or finding information, problem-solving, or sharing an experience with a friend or family member)? What made it a positive experience?
  • What skills or behaviours would you like to see your child learn and apply to their use of online technology? 
  • What responsibility do you have as a parent to ensure your child can use the Internet safely, responsibly, and skilfully? 

Digital citizenship is an example of the vision, values, and competencies of in The New Zealand Curriculum in action in digital spaces. It combines:

  • skills and strategies for students to access technology, connect to, create, and achieve their goals
  • attitudes, underpinned by values, that help them connect with, and collaborate with others positively
  • understanding and knowledge of the digital environments and contexts in which they are working, and how they integrate on/offline spaces
  • the ability to draw on this digital fluency to participate in life-enhancing opportunities (social, economic, cultural, civil) and achieve their goals in ways that make an important difference.

Digital citizenship is a high-level outcome of achieving digital fluency and applying skills through multiple contexts. This definition of digital citizenship aligns strongly with the vision and principles of The New Zealand Curriculum and Te Marautanga o Aotearoa .

NetSafe's explanation of digital citizenship diagram

Diagram 1: A definition of digital citizenship – NetSafe (2016)

Diagram 1: A definition of digital citizenship — Netsafe (2016)

Netsafe

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The digital citizen

Andrew Churches summarises the six tenets of citizenship:

  • respect yourself
  • protect yourself
  • respect others
  • protect others
  • respect intellectual property
  • protect intellectual property.
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Digital citizenship and digital literacy

Netsafe NZ defines digital citizenship.  

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Consider
  • What are the attributes of a responsible digital citizen?
  • What kind of digital citizen are you?
  • What kind of digital citizen is your child? How do you know this? 

The National Cyber Security Alliance (NCSA) provides key points in StaySafeOnline.org  on how to raise digital citizens to: 

  • remain positively engaged 
  • support their good choices 
  • keep a clean machine
  • know the protection features of the websites and software your children use
  • review privacy settings 
  • teach critical thinking
  • explain the implications
  • help them be good digital citizens 
  • understand just saying "no" rarely works
  • empower your children to handle issues
  • encourage your children to be "digital leaders".
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Staying Safe Online  

A booklet from NetSafe containing practical tips for managing the internet's most popular platforms.

Parents guide to technology

Tips for safely managing smartphones, gaming devices, and tablets from UK safer internet .

Raising digital citizens

Teach your children to become good digital citizens with these resources.

Parenting online

An infographic representing a survey commissioned by the Australian Office of the Children's eSafety Commissioner, June 2016.

Create 

Develop proactive and positive strategies to support your child to become a good digital citizen. Refer to the points and links provided above.

Digital footprints and online reputation

Your digital footprint is the trail of digital breadcrumbs left behind your online activity. These can include:

  • the websites you visit
  • the pictures you share
  • the comments you post
  • the things you download
  • the interactions you have on social media.

Digital footprints don't necessarily fade with time. Web 2.0 sites and pages have made it possible for throwaway comments made in the heat of the moment to be stored permanently, copied, shared, reproduced, and distributed by multiple users. Once a post is made or an image shared on a public forum, it is out of your control. As the saying goes, the Internet never forgets. 

Question mark
Consider
  • How could unwanted online content affect a young person's reputation, relationships, and employment opportunities?
  • Being a responsible digital citizen is essential for managing your digital footprint. How can you ensure your child possesses the qualities of a responsible digital citizen? How can you help your child manage their digital footprint?
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Managing your digital footprint requires a range of strategies, from monitoring what you share online to organising privacy settings and passwords.

Online risks

Student with head in her hands

Image source: Jedidja

The dangers posed by cyberbullying can be difficult to anticipate, and can have long-term and damaging effects on a young person's life.

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Tagged is a video for parents, teachers, and teenagers in middle to upper secondary school. It encourages discussions on the core ethical obligations of going online. It explores issues like the widespread impact of cyberbullying, how internet users can manage their digital reputation, and how online interactions may have real-life consequences.

The film is accompanied by flexible lesson plans and hindsight character interviews that use realistic scenarios and activities to encourage teenagers to adopt positive online behaviours.

Question mark
Consider

How could you have an open conversation with your older child about the implications and issues surrounding: 

  • sexting
  • digital reputation
  • cyberbullying
  • being a bystander?
  • If your child is younger, how are you preparing yourself and them to engage positively in an online world? 
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Cyberbullying and harassment

Stay Safe Online provides tips and resources to help you protect your children. 

Bullying. Not a normal part of growing up: Advice for adults  from Bullyingfreenz

The New Zealand website for people affected by crime

If someone deliberately sends you messages or posts material online that causes you serious emotional distress you can get help under the Harmful Digital Communications Act.

iParent – Cyberbullying

Find resources and suggestions to help you answer the questions below. 

Staying Safe – Cyber Bullying

Vodafone NZ: What do you do if your child is a target of cyberbullying – or a bully themselves?

Question mark
Consider
  • How do you know if your child is being cyberbullied and what can you do?
  • How do you know and what can you do if your child is cyberbullying others?
  • Does your child know what do when he/she witnesses cyberbullying (as a bystander)?
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Create – Share

Using the resources found in the links above, list some strategies for helping your child understand and protect themselves from cyberbullying. 

Sexting is the act of sending sexually explicit photos, messages, voicemails, images, and videos, via phone, chat platform, social media, or apps. It has become a normalised and increasingly popular activity amongst young people and adults. Sharing sexually explicit material is nothing new, but the technology that can broadcast this information instantly and virally, and permanently store the content on digital media, is.

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Nude Selfies: ChildNet  (UK, 2015) has four animations about nude selfies and the implications for young people.

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So you got naked online  (NetSafe  & UK Safer Child Centre, 2015)

Advice for young people and parents on how to deal with issues arising out of sexting incidents.

iParent – Sexting

An Australian resource with practical suggestions to support your child. 

The Harmful Digital Communications Act  

This site includes a range of measures designed to prevent cyberbullying and other harmful forms of online communications from taking place, as well as help those affected to deal with incidents. These incidents include when someone uses the internet, email, apps, social media, or mobile phones to:

  • send or publish threatening or offensive material and messages
  • spread damaging or degrading rumours about you
  • publish online invasive or distressing photographs or videos of you.
Question mark
 Consider
  • What can you do if your child has sent an explicit image or video?
  • How can you prevent your child from sexting? 
  • Once posted, how can you minimise the spread of images?
  • What is the law in New Zealand in regard to taking and sharing sexual images for people under 18? 
Student

Image source: Wen Tong Neo

Despite the many positive things that young people encounter online, they may also come across content that is illegal, offensive, or inappropriate, including:

  • real or simulated violence
  • sexually explicit content
  • illegal images of child sexual abuse
  • content promoting hate based on race, religion, or sexual preference
  • content instructing or promoting crime or violence
  • content promoting violent extremism
  • content that advocates unsafe behaviour like extreme dieting or drug taking.

Pornography is marketed aggressively online. Young people don’t have to look for porn to see it.

It's time we talked

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Helping children exposed to upsetting online content

Advice on how to deal with inappropriate, offensive, or illegal material.

Parents Chatterbox series

An Australian series of videos on Vimeo to support parents with supporting  and protecting their children whilst online. 

It's time we talked – Online pornography

A resource to guide parents to support their child with issues surrounding online pornography. 

Question mark
Consider
  • How can your child access inappropriate content online?
  • How do you prevent your child from being exposed to upsetting online content?
  • How do you help your child if they have been exposed to upsetting online content?
  • How do you help your child contextualise what they've seen?

While interacting with others online, your child may engage with someone who makes them feel uncomfortable, or even scared. This type of communication can come from a stranger, or someone they actually know. On the other hand, interacting with people online can be a good way for your child to build friendships, learn, and socialise. 

To manage the risks of unwanted online contact, encourage your child to: 

  • raise any concerns with you or another trusted adult
  • use only a first name or nickname to identify themselves
  • never disclose their phone number or address
  • never send photographs of themselves that clearly show their identity
  • never agree to meet someone they have met online without your permission and at the very least with adult supervision.

iParent

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Online bullying and harassment

Netsafe outlines strategies to deal with online bullying and harassment and provides information about the new Harmful Digital Communications Act .

Dealing with unwanted calls and text messages

Spark NZ: If you are receiving calls or text messages of a harassing or annoying nature, here are some steps to help you handle them, and what you can do if they don’t stop.

Question mark
Consider
  • How can you minimise unwanted online contact from someone with your child:
    • in a proactive way?
    • in a protective way?

Manage your digital home

There are a range of devices that allow online access into and out of your home. These may include the obvious devices such as:

  • laptops/computers
  • televisions
  • mobile phones
  • tablets.

Some of the devices you have in your home are not so obviously connected. These may include:

  • game consoles
  • DVD players
  • smart toys
  • CCTV cameras/webcams
  • home appliances.

It is important to ensure that you have effective e-security (internet security) to cover the use of these devices, the range of activities associated with the use of these, and to protect the people using them. 

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Protecting your digital lifestyle

An interactive guide and learn how to be safe and secure with the connected devices in your life.

Scams

Netsafe offers advice to help you identify and deal with online scams. 

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Create – Share

Visit the Security page on Netsafe  and work through the suggestions to ensure your home is e-secure. Some of these include:

  • how to choose a good password
  • how to prevent a ransomware incident
  • how to improve your online privacy and security
  • how to check if someone is using your broadband or connecting to your wifi router.

Spread the word! Let friends and family know about how to make their homes and devices more secure. 

Most devices have pre-installed settings that help parents to monitor and control what other users do online. However, no tool is going to be totally effective in blocking inappropriate content and contact online. For nearly every YouTube clip on how to set up parental controls on a device, there is a clip on how to bypass parental controls. Therefore, it is important for parents to supervise use in certain circumstances, but more importantly, communicate with children about their online activities. 

Every parental control tool is different. Most tools:

  • can block children from accessing specific websites, protocols, or applications
  • filter different kinds of content, like sexual content
  • allow parents to monitor use with reports on sites accessed, the length of time and frequency of access
  • can be used to set time limits, blocking access after a set time – handy if you are not home and want to limit the time your child spends on a game or social media
  • allow parents to change the tool settings to reflect each child’s age and skills.

iParent

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How to put parental controls on your child's phone?

Netsafe offers suggestions on having control software and settings, as well as providing tips for having an open discussion with your child.

Parental controls for computers, tablets and smartphones

iParent – Australia provides information for controlling accounts and settings.

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Investigate

Filtering options

Filtering can block inappropriate content from coming through to your Internet accessible devices. Filtering can be useful because unwanted content can appear even without the user's intention for this to happen.  

Check your software settings

The best Internet filter software of 2016

Scroll down the page provided as a link for an explanation of what filtering software can do in your home.

Question mark
Consider

Your child may be able to bypass parental controls, monitoring software, and install inappropriate Apps.

  • How can you talk to your child about the websites they view and establish a sense of trust when they are not being supervised with their online use?
  • How can you know the websites your child is visiting are safe?
  • What measures can you take to protect your family from unwanted online content?
  • What do you do if you encounter illegal material?
  • What can you do if your child sees something online that is offensive?

There are many benefits to being able to use search engines such as Google and Bing to find information and complete school work. There are also some risks. 

Risks for children when using search engines
  • Exposure to material that may be offensive or illegal.
  • Visibility to search engine providers of your search activity.

Get Safe Online

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Watch

Smart online search tips for kids by Common Sense Media

Online research: Tips for effective search strategies by Research Videos

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Search safely

iParent – Australia offers six useful tips on how to search safely online. 

Searching the Internet

Suggestions for searching safely online from the Stay Safe Online website. 

Child safety online

An overview of the risks of accessing content online and provides guidelines for parents from the Department of Internal Affairs. 

Question mark
Consider
  • Do you know how to use effective and safe search strategies whilst looking for content online? Does your child?
  • Is your child's school teaching safe and effective search strategies? How do you know this? What can you do in a positive way if you think this isn't happening? 
Key resource

Online safety for parents

Netsafe logo

10 essential things for parents to think about, supported by online guides and resources developed by NetSafe.

Key resource

From literacy to fluency to citizenship: Digital citizenship in education

Netsafe logo

In this paper, Netsafe presents a revised model of digital citizenship. 

Digital citizenship combines the confident, fluent use of three key elements:

    • skills and strategies to access technology to communicate, connect, collaborate, and create
    • attitudes, underpinned by values, that support personal integrity and positive connection with others
    • understanding and knowledge of the digital environments and contexts in which they are working, and how they integrate on and offline spaces.

Netsafe resources

Connected

Created by a group of Year 10 Girls at St Andrew's College in Christchurch, who completed a Health Unit called "Connected" which looks at the digital world, social media, technology, and how we use it. 

11 tips for students to manage their digital footprints  

Tips from Justin Boyle on the TeachThought website.

Essential elements of digital citizenship

This article presents nine themes of digital citizenship.

Passport to digital citizenship

Mike Ribble outlines a journey towards appropriate technology use at school and at home.

Digital citizenship: Using technology appropriately

Useful ideas and links to resources to help with teaching digital citizenship. 

Digital citizenship

Common Sense Media – Lesson plans, interactive games, professional development, and family education.

The NetSafe Kit for schools

The NetSafe Kit helps schools to address student cybersafety and support digital citizenship. Following expert consultation, the fourth version of the NetSafe Kit details seven steps  required to produce a cybersafe learning environment with digital citizenship at its core. There are three policy and use document templates available as a part of this kit:

Sextortion

An explanatory video, discussion ideas, and downloadable posters for teachers to use with secondary school students.

Online bullying and harassment

Netsafe outlines strategies to deal with online bullying and harassment and provides information about the new Harmful Digital Communications Act.

Staying safe online: Information from New Zealand's leading online companies

This booklet contains clear and practical tips from some of the most popular digital platforms (available for download in PDF format).

Staying safe online  

 A quick guide with advice, tips and how-to guides for social media, online shopping, safe search and more.

Internet safety

Common Sense Media – Privacy and Internet safety.

Advice for young people

Advice for young people on what to do to keep safe when online and using social media.  

Students and Cybersafety

Students' perspectives about online safety issues provide insight into the culture of a school.  

Students leading the way

Victoria State Government outlines how students should have input in decisions around policy and processes. 

Sticks n Stones

A secondary student-led project managed by Central Otago REAP focused on taking positive action online to reduce cyberbullying.

Cyberbullying and harassment

Stay Safe Online provides tips and resources to help you protect your children.

Bullying. Not a normal part of growing up

Advice for adults from Bullyingfreenz. 

The New Zealand website for people affected by crime

If someone deliberately sends you messages or posts material online that causes you serious emotional distress you can get help under the Harmful Digital Communications Act.

iParent – Cyberbullying

Resources and suggestions for parents.

Staying Safe – Cyber Bullying

Vodafone NZ: What do you do if your child is a target of cyber bullying – or a bully themselves?

So you got naked online

Advice for young people and parents on how to deal with issues arising out of sexting incidents.

iParent – Sexting

An excellent Australian resource with suggestions to support your child. 

The Harmful Digital Communications Act

This site includes a range of measures designed to prevent cyberbullying and other harmful forms of online communications from taking place, as well as help those affected to deal with incidents. 

Dealing with unwanted calls and text messages

Spark NZ: If you are receiving calls or text messages of a harassing or annoying nature, here are some steps to help you handle them, and what you can do if they don’t stop.

Protecting your digital lifestyle

An interactive guide and learn how to be safe and secure with the connected devices in your life.

Scams

Netsafe offers advice to help you identify and deal with online scams. 

How to put parental controls on your child's phone?

Netsafe offers suggestions on having control software and settings, as well as providing tips for having an open discussion with your child.

Parental controls for computers, tablets and smartphones

iParent – Australia provides information for controlling accounts and settings.

Browser security settings for Chrome, Firefox and Internet Explorer: Cybersecurity 101
A blog to help you optimise your browser’s settings.

How to set controls on social media

Vodafone digi–parenting advice and tips.

Google Safety Center

Google provides support to help parents make safety choices around online use. 

The best Internet filter software of 2016

A list of products that have been tested, along with explanations of how filtering software works.

Search safely

iParent – Australia offers six useful tips on how to search safely online. 

Searching the Internet

The Stay Safe Online website provides suggestions on how to search safely online. 

Child safety online

The Department of Internal Affairs has an overview of the risks of accessing content online and provides guidelines for parents. 

Staying Safe Online  

A booklet containing practical tips for managing the Internet's most popular platforms.

Parents guide to technology

Tips for safely managing smartphones, gaming devices, and tablets. 

Raising digital citizens

Teach your children to become good digital citizens with these resources.

Parenting Online

An infographic representing a survey commissioned by the Office of the Children's eSafety Commissioner, June 2016, Australia.

Helping children exposed to upsetting online content

Advice on how to deal with inappropriate, offensive, or illegal material.

Parents Chatterbox series

An Australian series of videos on Vimeo to support parents with supporting and protecting their children when they are online. 

It's time we talked – Online pornography

A resource to guide parents to support their child with issues surrounding online pornography. 

Tips for strong, secure passwords & other authentication tools

Connect Safely provides ideas and tips to keep users safe. 

7 Ways to protect your privacy online

Advice to support online privacy. 

Is it safe to post pictures of my kid online?

Common sense media provides thoughts on this question.

Workshop

These teen materials focus on real-life stories shared by actual teens who have experienced victimisation firsthand and encourage teens to learn from their peers’ mistakes. 

Copyright in schools

Information and FAQs for teachers.

Copyright for principals and trustees  – Te Kete Ipurangi (TKI)

Copyright Council of New Zealand

Copyright use in the education sector, a downloadable PDF

Copyright compliance guidelines

NZ School Trustees Association (NZSTA) information.

Managing copyright in schools

A useful guide to help teachers to develop a copyright policy and ensure that all members of the school community understand and follow it.

Exceptions for education and teaching

A UK website outlining copyright exceptions for education. 

2011 Copyright Amendment

A downloadable PDF with information about the Copyright (Infringing File Sharing) Amendment Act.

CLNZ Education licence

If you intend to copy, scan, or share printed material with students that you didn’t create yourself, you need a CLNZ Education Licence.

Poster download  (pdf)

A one-page guide to display at your school.

What is "fair dealing" with copyright material?

The University of Otago website explains the concept of fair dealing. 

Is fair use a license to steal?

This information sheet outlines who can do what legally when it comes to using copyright material in the educational sector. The Permitted Use Table on page 4 of the information sheet summarises the permitted uses under the Copyright Act that are relevant to the education sector. 

New Zealand Intellectual Property Office

A guide to using copyright to protect the material you create and share online. 

Copyright online: What you need to know about protecting your works and using the works of others

The Ohio State University website presents ideas to protect the work you create.  

Intellectual property

Information from the National Library NZ.

Intellectual property and student work

Developed for Technology Online from a study by Susan Corbett, Louise Starkey, and Ann Bondy, Victoria University of Wellington.

Copyright flowchart: Can I use it? Yes? No? If This… Then…

An infographic explaining copyright.

Teaching copyright

A website with activities and resources to help teach about copyright.

Copyright and fair use guidelines for teachers

A poster with copyright guidelines.

Copyright infringement: 5 myths vs facts

An infographic and explanatory video.

Creative Commons Aotearoa New Zealand
Creative Commons is a non-profit organisation that helps people share their copyright works for reuse by others.

Digital fluency toolbox

Explore some practical classroom approaches and activities for supporting the development of digital fluency.

Plagiarism.org

A useful website explaining plagarism.

Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarising  

This handout explains what each entails and how you should use these within essays or research.

Notetaking and notemaking links  

This site has a number of practical links for students when researching including graphic organisers for note taking.

Wanna work together

A video clip from Creative Commons  that pays tribute to the people around the world using CC licences to build a better, more vibrant creative culture.

Sharing creative works

A video based on the comic written and illustrated by Alex Roberts, Rebecca Rojer & Jon Phillips. 

New Zealand School Trustees Association – Copyright licensing

NZSTA have teamed up with licencing agencies to take the guess work out of copying for schools.

New Zealand Legislation: Acts

Acts to about copyright infringement.

Copyright – The invisible shield  

Guidance notes for students.

PBS Kids webonauts

Webonauts Internet Academy is a web original game for PBS KIDS GO! that gives 8- to 10-year-old kids an opportunity to have some fun while exploring what it means to be a citizen in a web-infused‚ information-rich world. 

Digital etiquette

In this BrainPOP movie, Tim and Moby teach you about the do’s and don’t’s of digital etiquette, a.k.a. netiquette. Learn how the rules of conduct we follow in our everyday lives apply to many different types of digital communication, from emails to instant messages to social networking websites.

Social networking

Millions of people worldwide have joined online social networks. In this BrainPOP movie, Tim and Moby explain what all the fuss is about! 

Cyberbee

An interactive game for students.

Taking the mystery out of copyright  

An online mystery game for students.

The adventure of the girl with the light blue hair

A web series produced as part of the AHRC-funded activities of CopyrightUser.org. It explores key principles and ideas underpinning copyright law, creativity, and the limits of lawful appropriation and reuse.

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